There are parts of the computer that are there for legacy reasons or technical limitations which make them less than optimal. There are always people out there looking at ways to radically redesign the computer by changing the materials and connections used or optimising how they perform. In this thread we will look at some of the research and potential breakthroughs. These include things like using light instead of electricity, memristors, bio-computers and the like. To kick things off there is HPE, HP's Enterprise R&D arm, The Machine project. https://www.labs.hpe.com/the-machine The concept is "How would you make a computer if you had a pool of fast non-volatile memory with unlimited storage?" They have been looking into it for a number of years and if we manage to get memristors working they could be in a good position to take full advantage of it. Last year they showed off a prototype machine which shows promise. https://www.scientificamerican.com/...en-computer-sans-much-anticipated-memristors/ This field is called memory-driven computing where you have the huge pool of memory that you can use for storage and processing. Potentially getting rid of any sort of cache as you just work directly on the data without having to move it. This could remove a lot of the load associated with memory and storage management which would speed things up a lot. Here's a good look at what was in their prototype machine, which seem to mainly be a working test bed that they can swap in/out different components as new technologies come to market. https://www.nextplatform.com/2017/01/09/hpe-powers-machine-architecture/ One of the goals of this research would be to produce a real System on Chip (SoC) where you would have the CPU, GPU, memory + storage along with a coms chip. Theoretically you could have one chip with two pins for power and two pins for a wi-fi areal, wireless controllers and display and your good to go. One of the big advantages of this would be that data would never have to leave the chip and can travel at maximum speed without any bottlenecks. This alone could drastically speed things up. The main hold-up to this at the moment is memristors, as soon as we get these working memory-driven computing will probably become the new standard.